This volume presents the current state of research and clinical knowledge on traumatic stress and its treatment. With contributions from the leading authorities, the book summarizes the knowledge that has emerged since the acceptance of PTSD as a defined entity in 1980. It also addresses the uncertainties and controversies that confront the field of traumatic stress, including the complexity of posttraumatic adaptations and the unproven effectiveness of some approaches to prevention and treatment.
Throughout the book, contributors demonstrate that rather than a normal response to an extraordinary situation, PTSD leads to a profound disorganization of the capacity to properly attend to subsequent stresses and to distinguish relevant from irrelevant stimuli. Highlighting the controversies and uncertainties that punctuate the study of trauma--including issues of memory, dissociation, and the interface between culture and trauma and the inextricable relationships between biological and psychological processes--this book examines how effective treatment interventions require a firm understanding of the basic processes involved at various stages in the development of PTSD.
I. BACKGROUND ISSUES AND HISTORY
1. The Black Hole of Trauma, van der Kolk & McFarlane.
2. Trauma and Its Challenge to Society, McFarlane & van der Kolk.
3. History of Trauma in Psychiatry, van der Kolk, Weisaeth, & van der Hart.
II. ACUTE REACTIONS
4. Stress versus Traumatic Stress: From Acute Homeostatic Reactions to Chronic Psychopathology, Shalev.
5. Acute Posttraumatic Reactions in Soldiers and Civilians, Solomon, Laror, & McFarlane.
III. DEFINING AND DIAGNOSING POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
6. The Classification of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Brett.
7. The Nature of Traumatic Stressors and the Epidemiology of Posttraumatic Reaction, McFarlane & Girolamo.
8. Resilience, Vulnerability and the Course of Posttraumatic Reactions, McFarlane.
9. The Complexity of Adaptation to Trauma: Self-regulation, Stimulus Discrimination, and Characterological Development, van der Kolk.
10. The Body Keeps the Score: Approaches to the Psychobiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, van der Kolk.
11. Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Clinical and Research Settings, Newman, Kaloupek, & Feane.
IV. MEMORY: MECHANISMS AND PROCESSES
12. Trauma and Memory, van der Kolk.
13. Dissociation and Information Processing in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, van der Kolk, van der Hart, & Marmar.
V. DEVELOPMENTAL, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL ISSUES
14. Traumatic Stress in Childhood and Adolescence, Recent Developments and Current Controversies, Pynoos, Steinberg, & Goenjian.
15. Prior Traumatization and the Process of Aging: Theory and Clinical Implications.
16. Legal Issues in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Pitman, Sparr, Saunders, & McFarlane.
17. Trauma in Cultural Perspective, de Vries.
18. A General Approach to Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, van der Kolk, McFarlane, & van der Hart.
19. Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress: Consultation, Training, and Early Treatment, Ursano, Grieger, & McCarroll.
20. Acute Preventive Interventions, Raphael, Wilson, Meldrum, & McFarlane.
21. Acute Treatments, Turnbull & McFarlane.
22. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Rothbaum & Foa.
23. The Psychopharmacological Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Davidson & van der Kolk.
24. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Nature of the Therapeutic Relationship, Lindy.
25. The Therapeutic Environment and New Explorations in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Turner, McFarlane, & van der Kolk.